History of the Tower of London

The Tower of London. For nearly a thousand years, this great fortress, palace, and prison played a central role in England’s turbulent history. Through its gates passed kings, queens, courtiers, churchmen, politicians, and judges—some to emerge in triumph, others never to be seen alive again. inside its walls shaped the course of English history. The Royal Fortress After Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066, he constructed a series of castles to intimidate the hostile Anglo-Saxons. The most formidable building came to be in the city of London. The wooden fort initially erected inside the southeast corner of theold Roman walls was soon replaced…

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How Do Bees Make Honey

Foraging bees collect nectar from flowers, sucking it up with their tubelike tongues. They carry it back to the hive in one of their stomachs. The nectar is transferred to other bees who “chew” it for about half an hour, mixing it with enzymes from glands in their mouth. Then they place it in hexagonal cells made of beeswax and fan it with their wings to dehydrate it. After the water content is reduced to less than 18 percent, the cells are capped with a thin layer of wax. Capped honey can…

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Medicinal Value Of Honey

Researchers has found honey to be a  potent antiseptic and anti-inflammatory Substance. According to The Globe and Mail newspaper of Canada reports: “Unlike the arsenal of sophisticated antibiotics that have hit a wall against antibiotic-resistant superbugs, honey is able to do battle with at least some of them when it comes to infected wounds.” What is in honey that gives it the ability to affect healing? The answer involves the worker bee that gathers nectar from flowers. The bee’s saliva contains glucose-oxidase, a key enzyme that breaks down the glucose in the…

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Human Activities Creating Natural Disaters

In the opinion of a number of scientists, human-induced changes in earth’s atmosphere and oceans have made our planet a dangerous place by contributing to more frequent and more severe natural disasters. And the future looks uncertain. “We’re in the middle of a large uncontrolled experiment on the only planet we have,” said an editorial on climate change in Science magazine. So that we can better grasp how human activity might be affecting the frequency and severity of natural disasters, we need to understand a little about the underlying natural phenomena. For…

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Coco-De-Mer-The World’s Largest Seed

Coco-De-Mer, discovered in the middle of the 18th century. is a type of palm tree found only in the Seychelles, a small group of islands in the Indian Ocean. The largest concentration of the Coco-De-Mer is found in the Vallée de Mai, on the island of Praslin. These palms can reach up to 100 feet [30 m] in height and are estimated to live for hundreds of years. One fascinating fact about the Coco-De-Mer is that it is dioecious; there are male trees and female trees. For the female to produce fruit, it must be pollinated by a male Coco-De-Mer. So…

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Origin of the Chihuahua

The Chihuahua is characterized by a well-rounded head, wide-set luminous eyes, a saucy expression, and erect ears, which flare to the sides when in repose. They have short soft hair or long silky hair, and some may be red, blond, blue, or chocolate-colored as well as solid, marked, or splashed. A unique feature of most Chihuahua puppies is the soft spot on the crown, similar to that of a newborn baby.While there are different theories regarding the origin of the Chihuahua as a breed, it appears to have descended from a small dog…

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How Korean Language (Hankul)was Invented

BEFORE Hankul was created, the Korean language did not have its own script. For more than a thousand years, educated Koreans wrote their language using Chinese characters. Over the years, however, various attempts were made to devise a better writing system. But since all of them were based on Chinese characters, only the well-educated could use them. An Alphabet Ordered by a King In the 15th century C.E., King Sejong of the Korean Yi dynasty began to contemplate the frustrations of his subjects who could neither read nor write. Most had no…

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Early Childhood Care Critical To Human Intelligence

Advances in brain-imaging technology enable scientists to study brain development in greater detail than ever before. Such studies indicate that early childhood is a critical time for developing the brain functions necessary to handle information, express emotions normally, and become proficient in language. “Brain connections are being wired at an extraordinarily rapid rate in the early years, as the landscape of the brain is shaped by moment-to-moment interactions of genetic information and environmental stimuli,” reports Nation magazine. Scientists believe that the majority of these connections, called synapses, are made in…

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Reading to Newborn Babies Makes them Smarter

 Reading to young children has such a powerful impact on the rest of their lives that experts now recommend parents begin doing so when their babies are just hours old,says The Toronto Star. Dr. Richard Goldbloom, who two years ago spearheaded the first newborn literacy program in Canada, says: “One of the things we’ve learned and observed is that when you do read to a baby, they really pay attention from very early infancy. They are listening. Research indicates that just giving books to children from a very early age improves their…

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How is Human Activities Affecting Biodiversity

The term “biological diversity,” or “biodiversity” for short, designates all the world’s species, ranging from the smallest bacteria to the giant sequoias; from earthworms to eagles. All this life on earth is part of one great, interdependent web that also includes nonliving elements. Life depends on nonliving components such as earth’s atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, rocks, and soils. This community of life is called the biosphere, and humans are an integral part of it. Biodiversity embraces all the bacteria and other microbes. Many of these are known to perform vital…

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Underground Heat Energy Potential

Beneath the surface of the earth lies a huge tremendous store of heat called geothermal energy. Much of this heat is stored in underground layers of molten rock, or magma. The earth’s heat is indeed a treasure because it is a clean source of energy that offers distinct advantages over oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power. The temperatures deep inside the earth are in the order of hundreds and even thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. The amount of heat conducted to the earth’s surface from this interior in one year is…

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How Effective are Animal Senses

The range of colors our eyes capture is but a minute fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum. For instance, our eyes cannot see infrared radiation, which has a longer wavelength than red light. However, pit vipers have two small organs, or pits, between their eyes and nostrils that detect infrared radiation.Hence, even in the dark they can accurately strike at warm-blooded prey. Beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. Although unseen to our eyes, UV light is visible to many creatures, including birds and insects. Bees, for…

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