How Was The World Longest Tunnel Was Constructed.

IF YOU want to see impressive mountains , come to western Norway! You will be awestruck! In addition, the narrow, winding roads and the many tunnels attest to man’s ingenuity. Recently a new tunnel was completed—a feat of engineering that surpasses any of its kind. It is the Laerdal Tunnel, the world’s longest road tunnel—a highway 15.2 miles [24.5 km] long, bored through solid rock! Imagine driving into the mouth of the tunnel, knowing that after just a few minutes, there will be more than 3,000 feet [1,000 m]of mountain overhead! Why was such…

Read More

Natural Gas Formation and Exploration

 NATURAL GAS supplies more than 20 percent of the world’s total energy requirements. What is the source of natural gas? How clean is it? And how much is left? Many scientists believe that aeons ago natural gas was formed from the decay of plant and animal remains, including plankton. According to this theory, over long periods of time, microbes, together with pressure from the accumulating sediment above and heat from deep in the earth below, converted the organic debris into fossil fuels—coal, gas, and petroleum. In time, much of the gas…

Read More

Technology Explosion

Technology Explosion From cell phones to computers to television, technology has found its way into every corner of the world—even crossing the divide between rich and poor—and has become a part of life for many. The pervasiveness of technology is perhaps most apparent in the proliferation of cell phones, many of which are no longer just phones. Advanced models enable users to access the Internet, send and receive e-mail and text messages, watch TV, listen to music, take photos, navigate by the Global Positioning System (GPS), and—oh, yes—phone someone! According…

Read More

Bicycle Inventor “Baron Karl Von Drais”

Bicycle Inventor “Baron Karl Von Drais” Baron Karl von Drais, a German inventor, is credited with the invention of the bicycle. His scooterlike contraption, appearing about 1817, was basic in design. The draisine, as it was called, consisted of two wheels, a seat, and a handlebar for steering—but no pedals. Self-propulsion appeared in 1839 when a Scottish blacksmith, Kirkpatrick Macmillan, attached treadles connected by levers to cranks on the rear wheel. Then came a turning point in the popularity of two-wheeled transport. A French father and son, Pierre and Ernest…

Read More

Medieval Masters of Astronomy

Medieval Masters of Astronomy THROUGHOUT history people have been struck with awe as they gazed at the sun, the moon, and the stars. By studying the positions and movements of those celestial bodies, man has been able to mark the passing of days, months, and years. The Arabs were one of many peoples who studied the night sky. The golden age of science in the Middle East began in the ninth century C.E., and Arabic-speaking astronomers of that era were regarded as masters of astronomy. Their achievements played a crucial…

Read More

Britain’s Greatest Inventor

Britain’s  Greatest Inventor  ROBERT HOOKE, described by his contemporaries as “the most inventive man who ever lived,” is now hailed as England’s Leonardo da Vinci. Born in 1635, Hooke was appointed curator of experiments at the Royal Society of London in 1662 and made secretary in 1677. He died in 1703. Despite his scientific prestige, however, his remains lie buried in an unknown grave somewhere in north London. In recent years scientists and historians have worked hard to restore the reputation of this “forgotten genius,” as biographer Stephen Inwood calls Hooke.…

Read More

Medieval Masters of Mechanic

Medieval Masters of Mechanic AUTOMATION has taken over industry—especially the routine and repetitious tasks. But when did automatic, programmable devices first appear on the scene? Was it just a couple of centuries ago during Europe’s industrial revolution? You may be surprised to learn that automatic machines were invented much earlier. During the early part of the era known as the golden age of Islamic science, from the 8th to the 13th century C.E. and beyond, Middle Eastern scholars translated into Arabic scientific and philosophical texts that preserved the works of such…

Read More

Lizard Pafect Balance

Lizard Pafect Balance THE agama jumps from a horizontal surface onto a vertical wall with ease. But if that surface is slippery, the lizard loses its footing, yet it still makes a successful landing on the wall. How? The secret is in the lizard’s tail. Consider: When agamas jump from a coarse surface—which provides grip—they first stabilize their body and keep their tail downward. This helps them to jump at the correct angle. When on a slippery surface, though, the lizards tend to stumble and jump at the wrong angle.…

Read More

ROBOTS THE FUTURE WORK FORCE

ROBOTS THE FUTURE WORK FORCE According to estimates from a study released in 2006 by the International Federation of Robotics, there are almost one million industrial robots in service worldwide, and of these almost half exist in Asia. Why is there such a demand? What Robots Are Doing Imagine a worker who is always on the job, who never complains, and who can work tirelessly 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Well, industrial robots are doing just that as they churn out a host of automotive, electrical, and…

Read More

INVENTION OF TELEVISION

INVENTION OF TELEVISION SOON after men learned to broadcast sound, inventors wondered if they could also transmit live pictures. To appreciate the challenge, consider how television works today. First, a TV camera focuses a scene onto a target device that “reads” the picture, similar to the way you read print. However, instead of scanning lines of letters on the page, it scans lines of spots (or pixels) in the picture. It converts what it sees into an electronic video signal that can be transmitted to another place. A receiver then…

Read More

Mobile Phone “Addiction”

Mobile Phone “Addiction” “ATTACHMENT to Mobile Phones Reaching Point of Addiction,” stated a headline in The Daily Yomiuri of Japan. Addiction? “Young people appear to view their mobile phones as parts of their bodies and may even start to panic if they are separated from their phones,” explained the newspaper. In fear of being cut off from others, many keep their mobile phones on all the time, everywhere. If they “do not receive any messages on their mobile phones, they feel uneasy and irritable, and start to feel they are…

Read More

Astronomers Plead for Quiet

Astronomers Plead for Quiet Radio astronomers, listening for signals that tell of the birth of the first galaxies and stars, are increasingly frustrated because of “the gadgetry of modern civilization,” reports the International Herald Tribune. Television stations, radio transmitters, communications satellites, and mobile phones are drowning out the background noise from space that these scientists are trying to hear. To pursue their research, astronomers are seeking a quiet spot “where all forms of radio transmission would be banned.” There they propose to build an array of radio dishes spread over…

Read More