5 Key Importance of Water To Earth.

The importance of water to earth and mankind is enormous, but we will be taking five key once. but first lets give a brief introduction to water and its components. Water is an enigma. It is both simple and complex. Each molecule comprises just three atoms—two of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Yet, scientists still do not fully understand how water molecules work. What we all know, though, is that water is essential to life, making up about 80 percent by weight of all living things. Consider just five attributes of…

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The Hidden Earth Vent Life Secrets

The ground beneath our feet is understood to be made up of a rigid layer (called the lithosphere) that rests on a mass of molten, slow-flowing rock. Apparently, this rigid outer layer averages some 60 miles [100 km] in depth and makes up only about 0.6 percent of the volume of the planet. The outermost part of it, the crust, is uneven, thicker beneath the continents and as thin as 3.5 miles [6 km] beneath the mid-ocean ridge system. Furthermore, this solid outer shell is not one piece, like the shell of an undamaged egg. Instead, it appears to…

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Coco-De-Mer-The World’s Largest Seed

Coco-De-Mer, discovered in the middle of the 18th century. is a type of palm tree found only in the Seychelles, a small group of islands in the Indian Ocean. The largest concentration of the Coco-De-Mer is found in the Vallée de Mai, on the island of Praslin. These palms can reach up to 100 feet [30 m] in height and are estimated to live for hundreds of years. One fascinating fact about the Coco-De-Mer is that it is dioecious; there are male trees and female trees. For the female to produce fruit, it must be pollinated by a male Coco-De-Mer. So…

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Early Childhood Care Critical To Human Intelligence

Advances in brain-imaging technology enable scientists to study brain development in greater detail than ever before. Such studies indicate that early childhood is a critical time for developing the brain functions necessary to handle information, express emotions normally, and become proficient in language. “Brain connections are being wired at an extraordinarily rapid rate in the early years, as the landscape of the brain is shaped by moment-to-moment interactions of genetic information and environmental stimuli,” reports Nation magazine. Scientists believe that the majority of these connections, called synapses, are made in…

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How is Human Activities Affecting Biodiversity

The term “biological diversity,” or “biodiversity” for short, designates all the world’s species, ranging from the smallest bacteria to the giant sequoias; from earthworms to eagles. All this life on earth is part of one great, interdependent web that also includes nonliving elements. Life depends on nonliving components such as earth’s atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, rocks, and soils. This community of life is called the biosphere, and humans are an integral part of it. Biodiversity embraces all the bacteria and other microbes. Many of these are known to perform vital…

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Underground Heat Energy Potential

Beneath the surface of the earth lies a huge tremendous store of heat called geothermal energy. Much of this heat is stored in underground layers of molten rock, or magma. The earth’s heat is indeed a treasure because it is a clean source of energy that offers distinct advantages over oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power. The temperatures deep inside the earth are in the order of hundreds and even thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. The amount of heat conducted to the earth’s surface from this interior in one year is…

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How Effective are Animal Senses

The range of colors our eyes capture is but a minute fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum. For instance, our eyes cannot see infrared radiation, which has a longer wavelength than red light. However, pit vipers have two small organs, or pits, between their eyes and nostrils that detect infrared radiation.Hence, even in the dark they can accurately strike at warm-blooded prey. Beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. Although unseen to our eyes, UV light is visible to many creatures, including birds and insects. Bees, for…

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How Was The World Longest Tunnel Was Constructed.

IF YOU want to see impressive mountains , come to western Norway! You will be awestruck! In addition, the narrow, winding roads and the many tunnels attest to man’s ingenuity. Recently a new tunnel was completed—a feat of engineering that surpasses any of its kind. It is the Laerdal Tunnel, the world’s longest road tunnel—a highway 15.2 miles [24.5 km] long, bored through solid rock! Imagine driving into the mouth of the tunnel, knowing that after just a few minutes, there will be more than 3,000 feet [1,000 m]of mountain overhead! Why was such…

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How is Rain Formed

About 97 percent of the earth’s water is held in the oceans. The rest is, for the most part, locked up in glaciers or stored in lakes and aquifers. Of course, ocean water is not drinkable.Before ocean water becomes drinkable, it takes a long, complicated journey. First, it evaporates, becoming a gas—water vapor. Every year, heat from the sun draws up about 95,000 cubic miles [400,000 km3] of water from land and sea into the atmosphere. The atmosphere itself is “a system of almost unbelievable complexity” that extends more than 250 miles [400 km] into…

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The Origin of Medicine

In 805 C.E., CALIPH HARUN AR-RASHID established a hospital in his capital, Baghdad. From the 9th century through the 13th, other rulers built and maintained hospitals throughout the Islamic empire, from Spain to India. These hospitals welcomed the rich and the poor of all religions. Professional physicians not only treated the sick there but also did research and trained new practitioners. Separate wards were set aside for different specialties—internal medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, surgery, contagious disease, and mental infirmity. Doctors, accompanied by their students, examined the sick each morning and prescribed diets and…

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How Sand Is Formed

Sand is composed of particles of minerals, rock, or soil, with quartz being the most common constituent. Peaks that once stood rock solid have eroded into sand. How does such erosion occur? Sand is often the product of ocean violence. Waves smash against coastal cliffs, and these collisions loosen and rip away slabs of rock. Very large pieces surrender before the unremitting assault, being sloughed off in chunks into the surf. The churning sea grinds off sharp edges, producing boulders. Constant motion gradually wears them into pebbles, and these are…

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THE ART OF WEATHER FORECASTING

EACH morning, millions of us turn on our radios and televisions for the weather forecast. Do the cloudy skies mean rain? Will the early sunshine last? Will rising temperatures bring a thaw to melt snow and ice? Once we hear the forecast, we decide what clothes to wear and whether to carry an umbrella or not. From time to time, though, weather forecasts are conspicuously off the mark. Yes, though the accuracy of forecasts has improved dramatically in recent years, predicting the weather is a fascinating mixture of art and…

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