Trees used in Making Violin Endangered

The violin is a wooden String Instrument,which produces high melodic pitch pleasant to the ear for lovers of music.Producing a high-quality violin bows, a special kind of wood is needed—but this wood is becoming scarce,” notes the German science magazine natur & kosmos. The tree producing this wood is the Caesalpinia echinata, also known as the Pernambuco or pau brasil. Its natural habitat is the coastal forest of Brazil. But this forest is shrinking fast as land is being cleared for agricultural purposes. The trees now cover only 4 percent of their original area and are on…

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How Korean Language (Hankul)was Invented

BEFORE Hankul was created, the Korean language did not have its own script. For more than a thousand years, educated Koreans wrote their language using Chinese characters. Over the years, however, various attempts were made to devise a better writing system. But since all of them were based on Chinese characters, only the well-educated could use them. An Alphabet Ordered by a King In the 15th century C.E., King Sejong of the Korean Yi dynasty began to contemplate the frustrations of his subjects who could neither read nor write. Most had no…

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Reading to Newborn Babies Makes them Smarter

 Reading to young children has such a powerful impact on the rest of their lives that experts now recommend parents begin doing so when their babies are just hours old,says The Toronto Star. Dr. Richard Goldbloom, who two years ago spearheaded the first newborn literacy program in Canada, says: “One of the things we’ve learned and observed is that when you do read to a baby, they really pay attention from very early infancy. They are listening. Research indicates that just giving books to children from a very early age improves their…

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How is Human Activities Affecting Biodiversity

The term “biological diversity,” or “biodiversity” for short, designates all the world’s species, ranging from the smallest bacteria to the giant sequoias; from earthworms to eagles. All this life on earth is part of one great, interdependent web that also includes nonliving elements. Life depends on nonliving components such as earth’s atmosphere, oceans, fresh water, rocks, and soils. This community of life is called the biosphere, and humans are an integral part of it. Biodiversity embraces all the bacteria and other microbes. Many of these are known to perform vital…

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Underground Heat Energy Potential

Beneath the surface of the earth lies a huge tremendous store of heat called geothermal energy. Much of this heat is stored in underground layers of molten rock, or magma. The earth’s heat is indeed a treasure because it is a clean source of energy that offers distinct advantages over oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power. The temperatures deep inside the earth are in the order of hundreds and even thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. The amount of heat conducted to the earth’s surface from this interior in one year is…

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How Effective are Animal Senses

The range of colors our eyes capture is but a minute fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum. For instance, our eyes cannot see infrared radiation, which has a longer wavelength than red light. However, pit vipers have two small organs, or pits, between their eyes and nostrils that detect infrared radiation.Hence, even in the dark they can accurately strike at warm-blooded prey. Beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum is ultraviolet (UV) light. Although unseen to our eyes, UV light is visible to many creatures, including birds and insects. Bees, for…

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How is Rain Formed

About 97 percent of the earth’s water is held in the oceans. The rest is, for the most part, locked up in glaciers or stored in lakes and aquifers. Of course, ocean water is not drinkable.Before ocean water becomes drinkable, it takes a long, complicated journey. First, it evaporates, becoming a gas—water vapor. Every year, heat from the sun draws up about 95,000 cubic miles [400,000 km3] of water from land and sea into the atmosphere. The atmosphere itself is “a system of almost unbelievable complexity” that extends more than 250 miles [400 km] into…

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How Sand Is Formed

Sand is composed of particles of minerals, rock, or soil, with quartz being the most common constituent. Peaks that once stood rock solid have eroded into sand. How does such erosion occur? Sand is often the product of ocean violence. Waves smash against coastal cliffs, and these collisions loosen and rip away slabs of rock. Very large pieces surrender before the unremitting assault, being sloughed off in chunks into the surf. The churning sea grinds off sharp edges, producing boulders. Constant motion gradually wears them into pebbles, and these are…

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CAHOKIA- The origin of Native Americans

CAHOKIA- The origin of Native Americans WHEN you think of historic cities, which ones come to mind? Rome, London, Paris? What about Cahokia? ‘Cahokia?’ you might ask. Yes, Cahokia—located in Illinois, eight miles [13 km] east of St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. Large, sophisticated, and well planned, it ranked as an outstanding American Indian city for 500 years. At the height of its civilization, about 1150 C.E., Cahokia was bigger than either London or Rome of that time. Encompassing more than five square miles [13 km2], according to one source, Cahokia “was unquestionably the largest prehistoric…

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THE ART OF WEATHER FORECASTING

EACH morning, millions of us turn on our radios and televisions for the weather forecast. Do the cloudy skies mean rain? Will the early sunshine last? Will rising temperatures bring a thaw to melt snow and ice? Once we hear the forecast, we decide what clothes to wear and whether to carry an umbrella or not. From time to time, though, weather forecasts are conspicuously off the mark. Yes, though the accuracy of forecasts has improved dramatically in recent years, predicting the weather is a fascinating mixture of art and…

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CHILDHOOD OBESITY- THE CAUSE

OBESITY among children has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. The World Health Organization says that worldwide an estimated 22 million children under the age of five are overweight. A national survey in Spain revealed that 1 out of every 3 children is either overweight or obese. In just ten years (1985-1995), childhood obesity tripled in Australia. In the last three decades, obesity in children aged 6 to 11 has more than tripled in the United States. Childhood obesity is also extending to developing countries. According to the International Obesity Task…

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Dangerous Occupations

Dangerous Occupations What are the ten most dangerous occupations? According to figures compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, timber cutters topped the list with nearly 129 fatalities per 100,000 workers, while fishers and water transportation workers followed close behind with some 123 and 94 deaths respectively per 100,000 workers. Listed in descending order, other risky occupations are those of airplane pilots, structural metal workers, miners, construction laborers, taxicab drivers, truck drivers, and farm workers. However, “the overall rate of fatal occupational injuries—4.7 per 100,000 employed—has decreased by about…

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